Web Development Technologies
XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language) is a family of XML markup
languages that mirror or extend versions of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the
language in which web pages are written.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing
the presentation semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its
most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can also be
applied to any kind of XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL.
HTML5 is a markup language for structuring and presenting content for
the World Wide Web and a core technology of the Internet. It is the fifth revision of the HTML
standard (created in 1990 and standardized as HTML 4 as of 1997) and, as of December 2012,
is a W3C Candidate Recommendation. Its core aims have been to improve the language with support
for the latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and consistently understood by
computers and devices (web browsers, parsers, etc.). HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4,
but XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML as well.
language. It was originally implemented as part of web browsers so that client-side scripts could
interact with the user, control the browser, communicate asynchronously, and alter the document content
that was displayed.
Flash / Action Script
Adobe Flash (formerly called "Macromedia Flash")
is a multimedia and software platform used for authoring of vector graphics, animation, games and
Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) which can be viewed, played and executed in Adobe Flash Player.
Flash is frequently used to add streamed video or audio players, advertisement and interactive
multimedia content to web pages, although usage of Flash on websites is declining.
PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development
but also used as a general-purpose programming language. PHP is now installed on more than 244 million
websites and 2.1 million web servers. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995, the reference
implementation of PHP is now produced by The PHP Group. While PHP originally stood for Personal
Home Page, it is now said to stand for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, a recursive acronym.
MySQL officially is (as of 2008) the world's most widely used open source
relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user access to
a number of databases. It is named after co-founder Michael Widenius' daughter, My. The SQL phrase
stands for Structured Query Language.
Active Server Pages (ASP), also known as Classic ASP or ASP
Classic, was Microsoft's first server-side script engine for dynamically generated web pages. Initially
released as an add-on to Internet Information Services (IIS) via the Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack
(ca. 1996), it was subsequently included as a free component of Windows Server (since the initial
release of Windows 2000 Server). ASP.NET has superseded ASP.
ASP.NET is a server-side Web application framework designed for
Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It was developed by Microsoft to allow programmers
to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web services. It was first released in January
2002 with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server
Pages (ASP) technology. ASP.NET is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), allowing programmers
to write ASP.NET code using any supported .NET language. The ASP.NET SOAP extension framework
allows ASP.NET components to process SOAP messages.
Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard method for web server
software to delegate the generation of web content to executable files. Such files are known as
CGI scripts or simply CGIs; they are usually written in a scripting language.
Java Servlets and JSP
A servlet is a Java programming language class used to
extend the capabilities of a server. Although servlets can respond to any types of requests, they are
commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers, so they can be thought of as Java Applets
that run on servers instead of in web browsers. These kinds of servlets are the Java counterpart
to non-Java dynamic Web content technologies such as PHP and ASP.NET.
Drupal is a free and open-source content management framework (CMF)
written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License. It is used as a back-end system
for at least 2.1% of all websites worldwide ranging from personal blogs to corporate, political,
and government sites including whitehouse.gov and data.gov.uk. It is also used for knowledge
management and business collaboration.
Joomla is a free and open source content management system (CMS)
for publishing content on the World Wide Web and intranets and a model–view–controller (MVC) Web
application framework that can also be used independently.Joomla is written in PHP, uses
object-oriented programming (OOP) techniques (since version 1.5) and software design patterns,
stores data in a MySQL or (since version 2.5) MS SQL database, and includes features such as
page caching, RSS feeds, printable versions of pages, news flashes, blogs, polls, search, and
support for language internationalization.
WordPress is a free and open source blogging tool and a content
management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL. It has many features including a plug-in architecture
and a template system. WordPress is used by over 14.7% of Alexa Internet's "top 1 million" websites
and as of August 2011 manages 22% of all new websites. WordPress is currently the most popular
blogging system in use on the Web, powering over 60 million websites worldwide.